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No Foot, No Horse

“No Foot, No Horse” is a well known saying in horsey circles. Good horse care and stable management can go a long way towards preventing laminitis which is sometimes referred to as founder. It is a common foot ailment which can be caused by a lot of different factors. The horse moves with short awkward steps and stretches it's front legs forward and it's hind legs under his body. It puts most of it’s weight on it’s heels to avoid pressure on the front feet. This is due to the inflammation of the laminae which are a sensitive part of the horse's foot. It is usually more pronounced in the front feet. Sometimes the horse will have a fever and the hooves will be hot. There may be rings of growth in the foot - these are signs of previous attacks of laminitis. It is a painful condition and if it is allowed to deteriorate can result in pneumonia or infection resulting in death or leading to the horse having to be humanely destroyed. There are a number of causes of laminitis including: • Prolonged standing on a hard stable floor • Cantering or galloping on a hard surfaces or trotting fast for long distances • A horse breaking into the feed store • Incorrect feeding - a horse that is prone to laminitis should not be fed barley nor should it be overfed • Fat ponies and horses especially those with flat feet are prone to laminitis • It can also be caused by toxicity so pastures should be checked for poisonous plants before putting horses out to grass. • Over rich pastures - fat ponies should have their stable rations reduced and in the summer put on sparse or limited grazing. • A horse that has laminitic tendencies should not be put out to graze in Spring or late summer • Some mares can become laminitic if some of the afterbirth has been retained after foaling. • It is important that a vet is consulted as soon as these signs have appeared because lack of treatment will eventually lead to the horse being "stuck to the ground". While waiting for the vet make the horse walk for five minute to aid the circulation to the foot. The vet will advise on treatment depending on the cause of the laminitis which may include keeping the hooves well trimmed. In cases where the laminitis has become chronic I.e. the pedal bone has

By |2016-10-23T11:34:29+00:00August 2nd, 2015|Animals, Horse, Horse Foot Ailment, laminitis|0 Comments

Pig and Hog Vaccination

Pigs and any member of the swine family need a lot of care. If you're a a pig owner, you have to be sensitive to their needs. It's not enough to have them wallow in the mud and feed when needed. While they may seem healthy at a glance, swines are susceptible to diseases too, which is why their bodies have to be prepared for any bacteria and viruses that could hit them. When this happens, one must be swift in applying treatment. There's a variety of products available for each type of illness. Yet prevention is always better than cure. Luckily, vaccination is a great way to keep your swine away from diseases. Common ones include foot and mouth disease, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea and African Swine Fever. With vaccination, there's huge chance of lesser economic and emotional loss when there are swine epidemics. Why Vaccination helps? Vaccination boosts a pig's immune system. It works by releasing antigens into the body to stimulate the immune system and help develop immunity to bacteria, microorganisms, parasites and viruses. Antigens are the protein component of infectious agents. When released to the host, the host's body becomes immunized. At this state, the body is induced to release antibodies which fight pathogens. In simple terms, the substance contained in vaccines helps your pig resist illness caused by harmful microorganisms. It reduces risk of catching and spreading a disease. Vaccination is an effective intervention done to prevent spread or decrease a pig's susceptibility to harmful viruses. Injection is considered as the most effective and widely used method of vaccine administration. The administration of the vaccine can be done before, during or after a disease strikes. In some cases, vaccination is more effective when done days before a potential threat arrives. For instance, gilts and sows have to undergo 2 vaccine shots before breeding and another at 3-4 weeks before birthing to prevent stillbirths caused by Leptospira bacteria. Factors like age, size and date of last vaccination affect this, so clearly discuss it with the experts. The injection site and dose have to be determined as well. There are 5 injection sites for pigs: Subcutaneous (under skin), Intramuscular (muscle), Intranasal, Intraperitoneal (abdominal cavity) and Intravenous (vein). Upon veterinary advice, the spots could be the most effective venues for the shots, depending on vaccine type and adjuvants. Vaccine Types Generally, there are two types of vaccines. One, there's the active vaccine and the inactive type. The active vaccine contains live pathogens, weakened, so that they [...]

By |2019-03-15T16:44:34+00:00August 2nd, 2015|Animals, Pigs, Vaccinations, Viral Diseases|0 Comments

Different Kinds of Pig Feed

Pigs are amazing creatures. They are smart, gay and noisy animals that could certainly make your day! If you think pigs would go with anything you give them, you're right. They are are single-stomached,omnivorous organisms. Meaning, they have to be fed twice or thrice a day in order not to go hungry. And, they eat almost all kinds of things-but again, it doesn't mean you can give them just anything edible on sight. Pigs love to eat, as they've always had. So feeding shouldn't be a problem in itself. Choosing what to feed is the challenge. If you own one or is planning to venture into pig farming, you must familiarize yourself on their diet. Food is essential for your growing piggies, so this is a large investment on your part. It is your responsibility to pick what they eat and control their meals. Below, is a look at the diet of swines and what you can give to boost their growth and health. What can they eat? Swines need a good mixture of food containing fiber, protein, vitamins and minerals. You can get these from a variety of food sources. Firstly, make sure that you always have a clean trough of water. Pigs love it, not only for drinking- but for soaking their pouty faces too. For any food you serve, make sure that it is gone after 20-30 minutes, and given at least twice a day. Commercial feeds - - Commercial pig feeds are generally more expensive, because every pellet is jampacked with minerals needed by each wiggling body. Depending on a pig's age, the feed varies in amount. For every month of age, a corresponding 450g of feed is given each day. The maximum amount is 2.75kg a day. Generally, commercial feeds are subdivided into three. Creep feeds: Also called starter rations, these commercial feed are for weaners aged from 5 -15 weeks. Starter rations utilize various nutrient sources (carbohydrate, lactose) to aid the growth of your weaners (a crucial point in pig-life) while keeping the feed easily digestible. After that, they graduate into Growing Rations and finally the Finisher Rations. Corn or soybean- - Pigs need a lot of energy to keep on doing their activities- tramping their troughs, wallowing in mud and keeping themselves looking cute. So, farmers incorporate soybeans, corn or dried whey in their their pigs' diets. These are very sources for sugar and protein, specifically lysine. Be careful though in feeding these to piglets, as they don't take in [...]

By |2016-10-23T11:34:29+00:00July 10th, 2015|Animals, Feed, Hogs, Pigs|1 Comment

An Overview of Horse Illness

Many horse illnesses can be prevented by good horse management such as regular worming. In the world of horses, the statement "a little knowledge can be a dangerous thing" is very true. It is very much in your horse's interest to find someone who is experienced and consult them whenever you have even the slightest suspicion that all is not well with your horse. You may have heard of the expression "the stockman's eye" - many illnesses can be prevented by careful observation on a daily basis. Horses are creatures of habit and each one must be treated as an individual. There are some general obvious signs of illness such as: coughing, being listless, lack of interest in their feed. discharge from the nose or eyes weight loss a dull coat Excessive sweating, pawing at the ground, looking at their flank and trying to lie down or roll are symptoms of colic ( a severe stomach ache). It is normal for a horse to rest a hind leg but if he is resting (i.e. taking the weight off )a front leg that is a sign of lameness. You can also judge the state of a horse's health by changes in behavior. For example when a horse who is normally quiet to ride starts to buck the chances are that he may have a back injury or a wound in Saddle area or under the girth.. These are some of the most common illnesses:: 1) Colic which is the number one cause of fatality in horses - call a vet at the onset of symptoms and that will greatly increase the chances of a happy outcome. 2) Degenerative Diseases such as navicular disease (horse takes short stiff steps) and ringbone which can be treated with pain killers but cannot be cured. 3) Laminitis - the hooves are hot and painful - can be worsened by rich grazing or overfeeding 4) Thrush - a smelly discharge from the frog prevented by daily picking out of foot and clean bedding. use disinfectant to clean out the foot. 5) Ringworm -.A fungus which creates round bare patches on the horse’s coat is also curable but highly contagious so don’t use the grooming equipment on other horses and do not stable the horse within touching distance of another horse. Wash your hands before approaching other horses 6) Strangles - enlarged glands abscesses at the throat which swell and eventually rupture. The horse will have a discharge from his nose be lethargic, and [...]

By |2016-10-23T11:34:29+00:00June 28th, 2015|Horse, Horse Foot Ailment, Horse Illness|0 Comments

PVC ? Environmental Concerns

Let’s talk about one of the most commonly used plastics today – Polyvinyl chloride. Or, as we all know it - PVC. In fact, 20 million tons were produced only in 1995. The reason why it is so commonly used,  is because  it’s a low cost material, light weight and comfortable to work with. In this article we will talk about and explain, how PVC is made, what the bad side effects from using it are and what the methods of its disposal are. How PVC  is made? In very simple terms – by linking monomers (a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecule) together. This creates polymer that can occur in two shapes: rigid and elastic. We get a flexible polymer when we add Plasticizers in the rigid one. Plasticizers are an additive, which passes on special rubber-like attributes of the polymer. (For a more elaborated version of how PVC is made, visit Manufacturing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a three-step process. In the process of making PVC, other additives are used as well, such as: impact modifiers, fillers, processing aids, smoke suppressors, UV stabilizers and optionally, pigments.  What the end product would be used for will decide what sort of additives will be added in the process. Many of these additives are released into the nature when PVC’s are getting made. This delivers a bad effect on the environment, which we will talk about in the succeeding chapter. Why  PVC is bad for the Environment? With the use of raw chemicals, the production of PVC can be harmful for the surroundings. Particularly for the environment that is close to where it is being made. For example, residents from Mosswile, Louisiana – a town that is close to a chemical facility for production of PVC – have  had three times more than normal dioxides level in their blood. All this is caused from the pollution of the water, ground and air. The pollution, of course, comes from releasing and disposal of additives during the devising process. In putting out these chemicals, which some are classified as carcinogenic, we risk our health. In fact, dioxin – one of the elements that occurs in the process, has been classified as a known human carcinogen. This is confirmed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and U.S. National Toxicology Program. Latest research indicates that there is no safe level of dioxin exposure for humans. Tests have been  performed on animals, and they all showed a negative affects. [...]

By |2016-10-23T11:34:30+00:00June 10th, 2015|Environmental, Plastics|0 Comments

Plastic, how it made and its Impact

Starting from coffee cups and shopping bags all up to protective gear and food packaging – plastic is a big part of our lives. Plastic is around us more than many realize, and it’s an important part of our everyday living. But, should it be? How safe it is? In this article, we will try to cover many how plastic is made and what exactly is plastic. Hopefully, we will bust some myths about it and give you a new insight for it. It’s Organic That’s correct – plastic is made from oil and/or plants. The first one that is made is from oil actually made from naphtha – a type of oil that cannot be refined for gasoline or motor oil. The second one that is made is from plants is a bioplastic – mostly used for disposable items like packaging, straws, pots, etc. The method of making a plastic is a long one, but we will try to explained in short words: - The Naphtha is processed into polymers , substances that are formed by chemical reaction in which large number of molecules (monomers) are joined together – creating a chain. - Different combination of monomers can yield the plastic resins with different properties and characteristics. - When the plastic finally emerges from the reactors, it’s not yes as we wanted to be. So therefore, additives are added (hence the name :). Not only that additives are meant to change the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the plastic, but to protect it as well, from light, heat or bacteria. Bioplastics are made from plants such as corn, orange peels, cellulose, etc.  A good thing about this kind of plastic is that it is  compostable: these plastics can decay into natural materials. There are 2 types of polymers (plastic) -Thermoset, plastic that once is made – it cannot be changed. -Thermoplastic, plastic that once exposed to heat it returns in its original condition. Environmental effects that plastic can cause With so many plastic products around us, some kind of impact on the environment is expected. Some of those impacts include: -Danger to animal life There is a big amount of plastic bags and bottle in our oceans. In fact, that kind of trash in the Pacific is estimated that is a size of Texas. This not only cause dangers to the marine life, but to us as well. Many countries spend a lot of money for picking up litter. Only the country of Australia is spending [...]

By |2016-10-23T11:34:30+00:00June 10th, 2015|Environmental, Plastics|0 Comments

Raising Yaks, What you need to Know.

Hello there. In this article, we will focus on raising yaks in USA. Although some prefer cattle over yaks, here we will try to let you know why yaks are also an option you might consider. In the USA, you can find yaks in 5 different colors: Black, Imperial, Trim Yak, Royal Yak and Golden Yak. From all of those, the Golden yaks are the rarest ones – they are only about 50 or so in the USA. Regardless what kind of yaks you are considering to raise, let’s see the benefits from it. Why Yaks? Well, most importantly – they are cheap to keep. These animals eat less than a cattle and the requite less handling that cattle. But also, they live longer than cattle do. Yaks are the type of animals that don’t need hormones, steroids, or antibiotic feed supplements for excellent health and growth. All they need is grass. They are quiet animals and they don’t need any special fencing. Talking about stuff you don’t need - you don’t need any special permit for raising yaks. Yaks are strong animals with ability to survive on very harsh environment and have a big reproducing rate. The Yak meat is in a limited supply, so it has a higher price that the regular beef. This is based on many factors, one of them being that yaks don’t get parasites or diseases. Yak meat is very low on cholesterol and fat, even lower than salmon and some other fish. Also, is much higher in protein than the rest of the meats. However, if you don’t want to raise them for slaughtering, they are other reasons as well: -Yak milk: Quality milk that is used for making butter and cheese. The raw Yak milk is often drank by kids and old people. - Rich fiber: Often compared with cashmere or camel for its quality and strength. Also, it’s in high demands and you can sell it for $4-5 per once (the rough one). Yaks can be used in crossbreeding with any other cattle breed. What you will get would be a strong cattle that is naturally cold-resist. Vaccines and diseases Although they don’t get sick very often (it’s actually very rare for this to happen), theoretically, they can get any decease that a cattle can. For this reason, they are treated same as cattle. Yaks can start receive vaccine after 3-4 months of age. Some of the vaccines that are standard are: - IBR - BVD - PI3 [...]

By |2016-10-23T11:34:30+00:00April 16th, 2015|Yaks|0 Comments