Farming, it may seem complicated at first, but is in fact a simple process, the only question is it right for you. Some may think of farming as sitting back and watching over plants or livestock, but unless you can afford to pay people to work your land you will have to participate in the harvest and up keep. Now you may be thinking how you will be able to afford the land and provide other needed items that you are not producing. Well that is quite simple, while you may not be able to mass produce food like the large companies, you can produce more than your family needs to survive. With your extra food you can sell it at a farmers market or to friends. Now with all of the logistics out of the way an interesting topic looms: Will you farm livestock or fruits and vegetables? If your a vegetarian your answer is simple, you will grow fruits and vegetables, however if you are not you still have a difficult decision. While both livestock and fruits and vegetables can yield a profit - livestock can do this with less work for you. The kinds of livestock farming that you could participate in are raising them for sale or raising them and selling their meat and other products. Raising livestock for sale may be another solution for a person who does not want to consume animal products, but selling the meat and other products of the animals is potentially more profitable. The kinds of livestock that you could chose to farm are cattle, pigs, sheep, turkey, and chickens. Each of these animals have reasons both for and against farming them. The cattle can be butchered and milked, both of which could be sold. The sheep’s wool can be harvested as well as mutton. Chickens produce both eggs and meat. Pigs and turkeys however only produce meat. No matter what animal you choose to farm you need to be able to provide some basic necessities like a clean shelter, clean water, and nutritious feed. The shelter needs to be clean of mud and manure, as well as providing enough space for the livestock to be comfortable, this includes ventilation that does not create drafts and proper bedding material, which will need to be changed often to prevent sickness. The clean water is necessary as it helps regulate the body temperature of the animals, and clean water will help prevent disease. Nutritious food is as important to [...]
Real, Cultured, or Printed? Nowadays we’re accomplishing miracles in the laboratory. It started, of course, with successful cloning, but we’ve moved on to teasing immature stem cells into making all sorts of tissues, such as skin for burn victims, miniature versions of human organs (called organoids) to learn to treat disease, and actual functional organs for lab animals that fulfill the function of a natural organ. More interesting is something that was accomplished back in early 2015. Scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital grew a complete rat forelimb in a petri dish . Fingers/claws, skin, bones, nerves, blood vessels, and muscles all in the right place and functional. In theory, it could be attached to a subject and tested to see if nerve and blood vessels connections were reliable, and if the bones and connective tissue were durable. There is no reason that they shouldn’t be. Meat in a Lab Muscles, of course, are also referred to as meat, and would be fairly undifferentiated from a naturally occurring meat in texture or flavor. What would be the primary difference about meat made in a sterile laboratory? No animals would be slaughtered; there would be no parasites; there would be no fecal contamination; and, most importantly, there would be no antibiotics or growth hormones necessary. There would be no vast tracts of land necessary, dedicated for the use of our current herds of animals. There would be no concurrent crops necessary to feed all these animals as they grew to a size appropriate for the abattoir, and then the local meat market. There would be no need of veterinarian care for herds to treat diseases. It would eliminate animal suffering,because meat would not be sourced from animals at all. In other words, by just about every popular definition, it would be completely Vegan meat. Of course there are always doubters; those who think meat is bad and artificial meat would be inadequate for some other reason. It’s very much like people that protest Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) foods—it makes no sense–since everything in our diet is a GMO. There is virtually nothing in our diet that has not been changed. Franken-Food Everybody loves corn for instance, but 8,700 years ago in Mexico it was known as teosinte, with just a few grains per stalk that would have easily fit on top of a 25¢ coin. We crossbred many teosinte with more grains than other plants, and eventually came up with the “cob” that was dense with grain. Yet no [...]
“No Foot, No Horse” is a well known saying in horsey circles. Good horse care and stable management can go a long way towards preventing laminitis which is sometimes referred to as founder. It is a common foot ailment which can be caused by a lot of different factors. The horse moves with short awkward steps and stretches it's front legs forward and it's hind legs under his body. It puts most of it’s weight on it’s heels to avoid pressure on the front feet. This is due to the inflammation of the laminae which are a sensitive part of the horse's foot. It is usually more pronounced in the front feet. Sometimes the horse will have a fever and the hooves will be hot. There may be rings of growth in the foot - these are signs of previous attacks of laminitis. It is a painful condition and if it is allowed to deteriorate can result in pneumonia or infection resulting in death or leading to the horse having to be humanely destroyed. There are a number of causes of laminitis including: • Prolonged standing on a hard stable floor • Cantering or galloping on a hard surfaces or trotting fast for long distances • A horse breaking into the feed store • Incorrect feeding - a horse that is prone to laminitis should not be fed barley nor should it be overfed • Fat ponies and horses especially those with flat feet are prone to laminitis • It can also be caused by toxicity so pastures should be checked for poisonous plants before putting horses out to grass. • Over rich pastures - fat ponies should have their stable rations reduced and in the summer put on sparse or limited grazing. • A horse that has laminitic tendencies should not be put out to graze in Spring or late summer • Some mares can become laminitic if some of the afterbirth has been retained after foaling. • It is important that a vet is consulted as soon as these signs have appeared because lack of treatment will eventually lead to the horse being "stuck to the ground". While waiting for the vet make the horse walk for five minute to aid the circulation to the foot. The vet will advise on treatment depending on the cause of the laminitis which may include keeping the hooves well trimmed. In cases where the laminitis has become chronic I.e. the pedal bone has
Pigs and any member of the swine family need a lot of care. If you're a a pig owner, you have to be sensitive to their needs. It's not enough to have them wallow in the mud and feed when needed. While they may seem healthy at a glance, swines are susceptible to diseases too, which is why their bodies have to be prepared for any bacteria and viruses that could hit them. When this happens, one must be swift in applying treatment. There's a variety of products available for each type of illness. Yet prevention is always better than cure. Luckily, vaccination is a great way to keep your swine away from diseases. Common ones include foot and mouth disease, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea and African Swine Fever. With vaccination, there's huge chance of lesser economic and emotional loss when there are swine epidemics. Why Vaccination helps? Vaccination boosts a pig's immune system. It works by releasing antigens into the body to stimulate the immune system and help develop immunity to bacteria, microorganisms, parasites and viruses. Antigens are the protein component of infectious agents. When released to the host, the host's body becomes immunized. At this state, the body is induced to release antibodies which fight pathogens. In simple terms, the substance contained in vaccines helps your pig resist illness caused by harmful microorganisms. It reduces risk of catching and spreading a disease. Vaccination is an effective intervention done to prevent spread or decrease a pig's susceptibility to harmful viruses. Injection is considered as the most effective and widely used method of vaccine administration. The administration of the vaccine can be done before, during or after a disease strikes. In some cases, vaccination is more effective when done days before a potential threat arrives. For instance, gilts and sows have to undergo 2 vaccine shots before breeding and another at 3-4 weeks before birthing to prevent stillbirths caused by Leptospira bacteria. Factors like age, size and date of last vaccination affect this, so clearly discuss it with the experts. The injection site and dose have to be determined as well. There are 5 injection sites for pigs: Subcutaneous (under skin), Intramuscular (muscle), Intranasal, Intraperitoneal (abdominal cavity) and Intravenous (vein). Upon veterinary advice, the spots could be the most effective venues for the shots, depending on vaccine type and adjuvants. Vaccine Types Generally, there are two types of vaccines. One, there's the active vaccine and the inactive type. The active vaccine contains live pathogens, weakened, so that they [...]
Pigs are amazing creatures. They are smart, gay and noisy animals that could certainly make your day! If you think pigs would go with anything you give them, you're right. They are are single-stomached,omnivorous organisms. Meaning, they have to be fed twice or thrice a day in order not to go hungry. And, they eat almost all kinds of things-but again, it doesn't mean you can give them just anything edible on sight. Pigs love to eat, as they've always had. So feeding shouldn't be a problem in itself. Choosing what to feed is the challenge. If you own one or is planning to venture into pig farming, you must familiarize yourself on their diet. Food is essential for your growing piggies, so this is a large investment on your part. It is your responsibility to pick what they eat and control their meals. Below, is a look at the diet of swines and what you can give to boost their growth and health. What can they eat? Swines need a good mixture of food containing fiber, protein, vitamins and minerals. You can get these from a variety of food sources. Firstly, make sure that you always have a clean trough of water. Pigs love it, not only for drinking- but for soaking their pouty faces too. For any food you serve, make sure that it is gone after 20-30 minutes, and given at least twice a day. Commercial feeds - - Commercial pig feeds are generally more expensive, because every pellet is jampacked with minerals needed by each wiggling body. Depending on a pig's age, the feed varies in amount. For every month of age, a corresponding 450g of feed is given each day. The maximum amount is 2.75kg a day. Generally, commercial feeds are subdivided into three. Creep feeds: Also called starter rations, these commercial feed are for weaners aged from 5 -15 weeks. Starter rations utilize various nutrient sources (carbohydrate, lactose) to aid the growth of your weaners (a crucial point in pig-life) while keeping the feed easily digestible. After that, they graduate into Growing Rations and finally the Finisher Rations. Corn or soybean- - Pigs need a lot of energy to keep on doing their activities- tramping their troughs, wallowing in mud and keeping themselves looking cute. So, farmers incorporate soybeans, corn or dried whey in their their pigs' diets. These are very sources for sugar and protein, specifically lysine. Be careful though in feeding these to piglets, as they don't take in [...]
Many horse illnesses can be prevented by good horse management such as regular worming. In the world of horses, the statement "a little knowledge can be a dangerous thing" is very true. It is very much in your horse's interest to find someone who is experienced and consult them whenever you have even the slightest suspicion that all is not well with your horse. You may have heard of the expression "the stockman's eye" - many illnesses can be prevented by careful observation on a daily basis. Horses are creatures of habit and each one must be treated as an individual. There are some general obvious signs of illness such as: coughing, being listless, lack of interest in their feed. discharge from the nose or eyes weight loss a dull coat Excessive sweating, pawing at the ground, looking at their flank and trying to lie down or roll are symptoms of colic ( a severe stomach ache). It is normal for a horse to rest a hind leg but if he is resting (i.e. taking the weight off )a front leg that is a sign of lameness. You can also judge the state of a horse's health by changes in behavior. For example when a horse who is normally quiet to ride starts to buck the chances are that he may have a back injury or a wound in Saddle area or under the girth.. These are some of the most common illnesses:: 1) Colic which is the number one cause of fatality in horses - call a vet at the onset of symptoms and that will greatly increase the chances of a happy outcome. 2) Degenerative Diseases such as navicular disease (horse takes short stiff steps) and ringbone which can be treated with pain killers but cannot be cured. 3) Laminitis - the hooves are hot and painful - can be worsened by rich grazing or overfeeding 4) Thrush - a smelly discharge from the frog prevented by daily picking out of foot and clean bedding. use disinfectant to clean out the foot. 5) Ringworm -.A fungus which creates round bare patches on the horse’s coat is also curable but highly contagious so don’t use the grooming equipment on other horses and do not stable the horse within touching distance of another horse. Wash your hands before approaching other horses 6) Strangles - enlarged glands abscesses at the throat which swell and eventually rupture. The horse will have a discharge from his nose be lethargic, and [...]
Hello there. In this article, we will focus on raising yaks in USA. Although some prefer cattle over yaks, here we will try to let you know why yaks are also an option you might consider. In the USA, you can find yaks in 5 different colors: Black, Imperial, Trim Yak, Royal Yak and Golden Yak. From all of those, the Golden yaks are the rarest ones – they are only about 50 or so in the USA. Regardless what kind of yaks you are considering to raise, let’s see the benefits from it. Why Yaks? Well, most importantly – they are cheap to keep. These animals eat less than a cattle and the requite less handling that cattle. But also, they live longer than cattle do. Yaks are the type of animals that don’t need hormones, steroids, or antibiotic feed supplements for excellent health and growth. All they need is grass. They are quiet animals and they don’t need any special fencing. Talking about stuff you don’t need - you don’t need any special permit for raising yaks. Yaks are strong animals with ability to survive on very harsh environment and have a big reproducing rate. The Yak meat is in a limited supply, so it has a higher price that the regular beef. This is based on many factors, one of them being that yaks don’t get parasites or diseases. Yak meat is very low on cholesterol and fat, even lower than salmon and some other fish. Also, is much higher in protein than the rest of the meats. However, if you don’t want to raise them for slaughtering, they are other reasons as well: -Yak milk: Quality milk that is used for making butter and cheese. The raw Yak milk is often drank by kids and old people. - Rich fiber: Often compared with cashmere or camel for its quality and strength. Also, it’s in high demands and you can sell it for $4-5 per once (the rough one). Yaks can be used in crossbreeding with any other cattle breed. What you will get would be a strong cattle that is naturally cold-resist. Vaccines and diseases Although they don’t get sick very often (it’s actually very rare for this to happen), theoretically, they can get any decease that a cattle can. For this reason, they are treated same as cattle. Yaks can start receive vaccine after 3-4 months of age. Some of the vaccines that are standard are: - IBR - BVD - PI3 [...]
The yak (Bos grunniens and Bos mutus) could be a long-haired bovid found throughout range region of south Central Asia, the Tibetan tableland and as way north as Mongolia and Russia. Most yaks are domesticated wild ox. There’s a little, vulnerable population of untamed yaks, Bos mutus. According to Wikipedia - "The yak (Bos grunniens and Bos mutus) is a long-haired bovid found throughout the Himalaya region of south Central Asia, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia. Most yaks are domesticated Bos grunniens. There is also a small, vulnerable population of wild yaks, Bos mutus." Yaks mate within the summer, usually between July and September, depending on the local surroundings. For the rest of the year, several males wander in little bachelor teams faraway from the big herds, but, when the rut approaches, they become aggressive and frequently fight among one another to determine dominance. In addition to non-violent threat displays, bellowing, and scraping the bottom with their horns, male yaks compete directly, repeatedly charging at one another with heads lowered or sparring with their horns. Like bison, however and not like cattle, males wallow in dry soil throughout the rut, usually while scent-marking with excrement or dung. Female Yaks enter oestrus up to fourfold a year, and females are receptive just for a few hours in every cycle. Gestation lasts between 257 and 270 days, so that the young are born between May and June. This leads to the birth of one calf. The female finds a secluded spot to relinquish birth. Females in the wild and domestic forms usually have births just once each every other year, although additional frequent births are potential if the food offer is good. Calves are weaned at one year and become freelance shortly thenceforth. Wild calves are at the start brown in color, and slowly later develop the darker adult hair. Females typically give birth for the first time at 3 or four years of age, and reach their peak fruitful fitness at around six years. Yaks can live for quite twenty years in domestication or captivity, although it's likely that this might be somewhat shorter within the wild.